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๐Ÿ›‘ื›ื‘ื™ืกื•ืช , ื—ื ื•ื›ื™ื” ื•ื™ืœื“ื™ื - ื‘ื—ื•ื’ ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืœื›ืœ ืืžื ๐Ÿ›‘


ืœืคื ื™ ื—ื’ ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ,

ืฉืžืขืชื™ ืคืขื ืขืœ ืื™ืฉื” ื™ืงืจื” (ื“ื•ื“ื” ืฉืœื™) ืฉืื™ื‘ื“ื” ืืช ื”ื‘ืŸ ืฉืœื” ื‘ื ืจ ืฉื ื™ ืฉืœ ื—ื ื•ื›ื”

ื”ื‘ื—ื•ืจ ื”ื™ื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœืคื™ ื”ืกื™ืคื•ืจื™ื , ืœื ื”ืกืคืงืชื™ ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ืื•ืชื• ืœืฆืขืจื™

ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื‘ืช ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื™ื , ื”ื•ื ื”ืชื’ื™ื™ืก ืœืฆื‘ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื–ืžืŸ

ื›ื™ ื›ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” , ื›ืจื™ื–ืžื˜ื™ , ืฆื™ื•ื ื™ , ื—ืจื•ืฅ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžื” ืœืชืช .

ืžื” ืฉืžืกืคืจื™ื .

ื”ื•ื ื ืฉืจืฃ ื›ืืฉืจ ื—ื™ื™ืœ ืฉื™ืฆื ืœืžืฉืžืจืช ืœื™ืœื” ืื• ืฉื”ื“ืœื™ืง ื ืจ ื—ื ื•ื›ื”

ื•ืฉื›ื— ืื•ืชื• ื“ื•ืœืง

ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืžื”ื—ื™ื™ืœื™ื ื ืฉืจืคื• ื‘ื‘ืกื™ืก , ืฉืœื ื ื“ืข ืฆืขืจ .

ืฉืžืขืชื™ ืฉื”ืืžื ื“ื•ื“ื” ืฉืœื™ ื™ืฉื‘ื” ืฉื‘ืขื” , ื”ื™ื ืืžืจื” ื‘ืฆื™ื ื™ื•ืช ื›ื•ืื‘ืช

ืื—ืจื™ ืฉืฉืคื›ื” ื”ืจื‘ื” ื“ืžืขื•ืช ื›ืื‘ ืœื ืžื•ืกื‘ืจ ...

"ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื™ ืคื—ื•ืช ื›ื‘ื™ืกื•ืช ".

ื›ื•ืื‘ ื›ืžื” ืฉื–ื” ื ื›ื•ืŸ ...

ืคืจืกืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื” , ื”ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื ื—ืจื˜ ืœื™ ื‘ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจ ื™ืœื“ื” .

ื›ืžื” ืื ื—ื ื• ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ืขืจื™ืš ื•ืœื‘ืจืš ืืช ื”ืฉื’ืจื” ,

ืืช ื”ืืžื”ื•ืช , ื”ืงื•ืฉื™ ื‘ืžืจื›ืื•ืช ื›ืคื•ืœื•ืช - ื”ืงื•ืฉื™ ื”ืžื‘ื•ืจืš .

ืžืื– ืฉืื ื™ ื ืฉื•ืื” ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืื ื™ ืžื›ื‘ืกืช ืืช ื”ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ,

ืจื•ืื” ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืกื•ืช ื•ืชืžื™ื“ ืžืกืชื›ืœืช - ื•ื•ืื™ ืืœื•ืงื™ื ,

ืชื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ืขืœื™ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืจื™ื ืœื•ื‘ืฉ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื™ืคื™ื , ืชื•ื“ื” ืฉื”ื ืžืชืœื›ืœื›ื™ื ื•ืžืชื™ื™ืฉื ื™ื ,

ื–ื” ืžืจืื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืฆื•ืขื“ , ื”ื•ืœืš , ื‘ื , ื—ื™ื™ื™

ื”ื™ืœื“ ื ื•ืœื“ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืจื™ื - ื•ื•ืื•ื•ื•ื• ื‘ื•ืจื ืขื•ืœื

ืชื•ื“ื” ืฉื”ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืžืœื•ื›ืœื›ื™ื , ื–ื” ืžืจืื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ื›ืœ

ืชื•ื“ื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื›ืœื•ื›ื™ื ืฉืœื ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืจื›ื™ื™ื

ื–ื” ืžืจืื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื–ื•ื—ืœ ,

ื”ื™ืœื“ ื’ื“ืœ - ื•ื•ืื• ืืœื•ืงื™ื , ืื™ื–ื” ืžืชื ื” ,

ื™ืฉ ืœื™ืœื“ ืฉืœื ื• ืงืจืขื™ื ื‘ืžื›ื ืกื™ื™ื , ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ื—ื‘ืจื™ื ,

ื”ื•ื ืžืฉื—ืง ื›ื“ื•ืจื’ืœ , ื”ื•ื ื ื”ื ื”

ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉืชื’ืข ืื™ืš ืื ื™ ืœื ืื•ืžืจืช ืœื™ืœื“ ืœื”ื–ื”ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืžื›ื ืกื™ื™ื ,

ืื• ืขืœ ื”ื ืขืœื™ื™ื ืฉื ืงืจืขื•ืช ื‘ืงืฆื‘ ืžื”ื‘ื™ืžื‘ื” , ืฉืœื ืชื‘ื™ื ื• ื”ื™ื” ืœื ื• ืžื™ื ื•ืก ื’ื“ื•ืœ

ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžื” ืฉืืชืŸ ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื ืง ื‘ืชื•ืจ ื–ื•ื’ ืฆืขื™ืจ ืขื ืฉื ื™ ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื‘ืžืขื•ื ื•ืช ื•ื™ืฆื•

ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœื ื• ืœื”ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืขืฆืžื™ื ื• ื ืขืœื™ื™ื ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื•ืข

ืื™ืš ืื ื™ ืžื•ื›ื ื” ืฉื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื™ืงืจืข ืžื›ื ืก ื—ื“ืฉ , ื”ืจื’ืฉืชื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื–ื›ื•ืช ืœื”ืชืœื•ื ืŸ ,

ืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืขืœ ืžื” , ืžื™ ืื ื™ ืฉืื ื™ ื™ืชืœื•ื ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื™ืœื“ ืฉืœื™ ื—ื•ืจ ืžื›ื“ื•ืจื’ืœ

ืžืฉื›ื™ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื”ืืกืคืœื˜ ืขื ื—ื‘ื•ืจืช ื—ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื—ืงื™ื ื•ืžื˜ื•ื ืคื™ื

ืžืœื›ืœื•ื›ื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ืฅ ื‘ืจื’ืœื™ื™ื ืื• ื—ื•ืœ ื‘ื ืขืœื™ื™ื ,

ืื™ืš ืื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื“ื‘ืจ , ื”ื™ืœื“ ืฉืœื™ ืจืฅ ืงื•ืคืฅ , ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื—ื‘ืจื” , ื›ื“ื•ืจ - ืžื” ื—ืกืจ ืœื• ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื ?

ื–ื” ืœื ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ...

ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื’ื“ืœื• ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ืฉื , ื”ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื’ื•ื“ืœื™ื - ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื•ื‘ืจื•ืœ ืžื‘ื–ืืจ ืฉื˜ืจืื•ืก

ื–ื” ื ื”ื™ื” ืฉืžืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื–ืจื” ืœื™ืœื“ื” ื•ื—ื•ืœืฆื•ืช ืฉืœ ืื•ื”ื” ืคื•ืจื•ืจ ืื• ืžื•ืชื’ื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ื—ื•ืจื™ ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื” ,

ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉ ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ืฉื ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืจื™ืื™ื , ืื‘ืœ ืชืžื™ื“ ื”ืžืขืžื“ ื›ื‘ื™ืกื•ืช ืฉืœื™

ื–ื” ืžืŸ ื–ืžืŸ ืขื ื‘ื•ืจื ืขื•ืœื ืฉืื ื™ ืžื•ื“ื” ืœื• ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืฉื”ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื”ืชืœื›ืœื›ื• ,

ื™ืฉ ืคื” ื—ื™ื™ื , ื”ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืขื‘ืจื• ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ื™ืคื” ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ื”ืฉื ,

ืžืชื ืงื™ื , ืžืงื•ืคืœื™ื

ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืœื™ื•ื ื”ื‘ื .

ืคืขื ื”ื‘ืื” ืฉืืช ืขื•ืฉื” ื›ื‘ื™ืกื•ืช ื•ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉืœื ืชืžื™ื“ ื–ื” ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” , ืฉื™ืžื™ ืœื‘ ,

ื”ื™ืœื“ ืœื›ืœืš , ื”ื™ืœื“ื” ืœื‘ืฉื” ืฉืžืœื” ื—ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช

ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืžืกื™ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื” ืœื” ื›ื™ืฃ - ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืœื™ืคื” ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ,

ื›ื™ืฃ ืœื” - ื”ื™ื ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชื’ื ื“ืจ - ืื•ืœื™ ื™ืฉ ืœื” ื—ื‘ืจื” ื—ื“ืฉื” .

ื”ื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืœื‘ืฉ ื—ื•ืœืฆื” , ื”ื™ื ืžืงื•ืžื˜ืช ื•ืœื‘ื•ืฉื” ืžื™ื“ื™ - ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ื™ื•ื ืžืชื™ืฉ

ื”ื•ื ื—ื–ืจ ืžืื•ื—ืจ - ืจื•ืื™ื ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื’ื“ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืขืœื™ื• ื™ื•ื ืฉืœื - ื•ื•ืื• ืžื” ื”ื—ื•ืœืฆื” ืขื‘ืจื” ื”ื™ื•ื ,

ื•ื‘ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ืช ื–ื•

ืื ื™ ื™ืืžืจ ื›ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ,

ื”ื ืจื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืงื•ื“ืฉ ื”ื - ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื ื• ืจืฉื•ืช ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ื ืืœื” ืœืจืื•ืชื ื‘ืœื‘ื“ .

ื™ืฉ ื—ืฆื™ ืฉืขื” ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื ืจื•ืช ืฉืืกื•ืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืœื™ื“ื ื›ืœื•ื ,

ื”ื ืจื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ื - ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื›ื‘ื“ ืืช ื”ืžืขืžื“ ื•ืœื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืžืœืื›ื” ,

ืชื’ื™ื“ื™ ืœื™ืœื“ื™ื ื›ืžื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืœื™ื“ื ื™ืคื” ื•ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืžื›ื•ื‘ื“

ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืœื ืœื”ืชืœื‘ืฉ ืœื™ื“ื .

ืœื ืขืœื™ื ื• ื”ื™ื• ื›ืžื” ืืกื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ืขื ืฉืจืคื” , ืœื ืงืฉื•ืจ ืœื ืจื•ืช ,

ื”ื™ื• ืžืงืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื , ืื ื™ ืœื ื™ื•ื“ืขืช ืœืžื” ื•ืขืœ ืžื” ื–ื”

ืื‘ืœ ืžื” ืฉื‘ื˜ื•ื— ื–ื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื”ืชื—ื–ืง ื‘ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ื ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื ื•ื›ื”,

ื‘ื•ืื• ืœืคื ื™ ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื ื”ื“ืจ ืžื” ืฉืืคืฉืจ ื‘ื—ื ื•ื›ื™ื” , ืฉืžืŸ ,

ื ืจื•ืช , ื›ื™ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื , ื ื—ืช ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื ืจื•ืช

ืขืฉื™ ืžืฉื”ื•ื ื˜ืขื™ื ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื”ื“ืœืงื” ื•ืชืชืขืงืฉื™ ืฉื›ื•ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื”ืฉื•ืœื—ืŸ

ื›ืœ ืžื™ ืฉืžืขื•ื ื™ื™ืŸ ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืžื”ืžื˜ืขืžื™ื ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื ื—ืช ืœื™ื“ ื”ื ืจื•ืช

ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืฉื›ื•ืœื ื™ื›ื‘ื“ื• ืืช ื”ื ืจื•ืช - ืขื ื”ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืงืจื•ื ืกื™ืคื•ืจ

ืืœ ืชืคื ื• ืœื”ื ื’ื‘ - ืืช ื”ืืžื ืืช ื”ืฉืžืฉ , ืขืœื™ืš ื”ื›ืœ ื ื“ืœืง ื•ืขื•ืžื“ .

ื‘ืงื™ืฆื•ืจ - ื”ื ืจื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืงื•ื“ืฉ ื”ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื ื• ืจืฉื•ืช ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ื

ืืœื” ืœืจืื•ืชื ื‘ืœื‘ื“.

ืขื•ื“ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื”ืจื‘ื ื™ืช ื™ืžื™ืžื” ืืžืจื” ืคืขื ,

ืžื” ื–ื” ื—ื ื•ื›ื™ื” ื•ืื™ืš ื”ื™ื ื ืจืืช ?

ื›ืžื• ืืžื ืขื ื™ืœื“ื™ื , ื”ื™ื ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืžืฉืžืฉืช ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช , ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื‘ื”

ื”ื•ืœื›ืช ื‘ืื” ืžืื™ืจื” ืืช ื›ื•ืœื ืžืชื–ื–ืช,

ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื”ื ื”ื ืจื•ืช - ืื—ื“ ืขื ืฉืœื”ื‘ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืื—ื“ ื ืžื•ื›ื” , ืื—ื“ ืฉืžืŸ , ืื—ื“ ื ืžื•ืš

ืื—ื“ ื›ื‘ื•ื™ , ืื—ื“ ืžืื™ืจ ืืช ื›ื•ืœื ื‘ืงื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ื ืจื•ืช ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืฉื•ื ื™ื - ื›ื›ื” ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืฉืœื ื•

ืืžื ืžืื™ืจื” ื›ืœ ื™ืœื“ ื‘ื“ืจืš ืฉืœื• - ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื–ื™ื ื” ืื•ืชื• ืœืคื™ ืžื” ืฉืžืชืื™ื ืœื• .

ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื”ื ืงื•ื“ืฉ ืื ื—ื ื• ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื›ื‘ื“ ืœื”ืขืจื™ืš ืื•ืชื ,

ืื™ืŸ ืœื ื• ืจืฉื•ืช ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ื - ื”ื ืคืงื“ื•ืŸ ืืฆืœื™ื ื• ืื ื—ื ื• ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืฉืœื”ื

ืฉื›ืœ ื”ืชืขืกื•ืงื” ืืชื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ื“ืฉ ืœื‘ื•ืจื ืขื•ืœื , ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ืš , ืฆื ื™ืขื•ืช , ื ื—ืช , ื”ืœื™ื›ื•ืช , ื“ืจืš ืืจืฅ

ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืื’ื•ืื™ืกื˜ื™ ืื• ืžื ื•ื’ื“ ืœื‘ื•ืจื ืขื•ืœื - ื”ื ืงื•ื“ืฉ ืื ื—ื ื• ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœื™ื”ื ,

ืœืื—ืจ ื”ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื ืœื ื‘ื—ื–ืงืชื™ื ื• , ืื ื—ื ื• ืžืฉื—ืจืจื™ื - ืœื›ื• ืœื“ืจื›ื›ื

ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืชื—ื™ื• ืืช ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืขื ื”ืื•ืจ ืฉื ืชื ื• ืœื›ื .

ืฉื ืจืื” ื ื—ืช ื•ื ื“ืข ืœื”ืขืจื™ืš ื›ืœ ืฉื ื™ื” ื•ืฉื ื™ื” ื‘ืžื—ื™ืฆืช ื‘ื ื™ ืžืฉืคื—ืชื™ื ื•

ื•ื›ืžื• ืฉืืžื ืฉืœื™ ืื•ืžืจืช ืฉืืžื ืฉืœื” ืืžืจื” ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื” ืœื‘ืจื›ื”:

"ืฉืœื ืชื“ืขื• ื›ืžื” ืืชื ืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ืื—ื“ ืืช ื”ืฉื ื™" , ืชื—ืฉื‘ื• ืขืœ ื–ื”

ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœื•ื

ื™ื•ื“ืคืช ืกื˜ื™ื™ืœ

ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœืขื™ืœื• ื ืฉืžืช ืืœื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืคืจืช ืฉื•ืฉื ื” ืช.ื .ืฆ.ื‘.ื”

.

ืคืจื˜ื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืฉืจื™ืคื” :

https://he.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ื”ืฉืจืคื”_ื‘ื‘ืกื™ืก_ืžื‘ื•ื_ืฉื™ืœื”

78 ืฆืคื™ื•ืช0 ืชื’ื•ื‘ื•ืช

ืคื•ืกื˜ื™ื ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื

ื”ืฆื’ ื”ื›ื•ืœ
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